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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION   389

the primary schools of his own country in 1866, The success
of " sloyd " in Finland led to its adoption in neighbouring
countries. In Sweden the system was taken up with great en-
thusiasm as a means of mitigating the evils of town life and
arresting the decline of the old peasant industries. The training
school established at Naas, in 1875, under Otto Salomon (1849-
1907), has done good service in working out the theory and practice
of the subject, and through the students from other lands who
have attended its summer schools has helped to spread the manual
training movement throughout Europe.

The general character of the " sloyd " system may be best
indicated by the summary statement posted up at Naas for the
guidance of the students. " (i) This system consists of work
in wood, including work similar to that of the carpenter, cabinet-
maker, pattern-maker, cooper, etc. (2) The work consists en-
tirely in the making of useful objects, termed models. (3) The
aim of the teaching is the education of the pupil, and not merely
the making of the models. (4) As the fundamental schools
prepare indirectly for life, the aim of the sloyd instruction must
be to give chiefly a formative education, a development of certain
powers of body and mind. (5) The formative aims of sloyd
instruction are as follows: (a) To instil a taste for and love of
labour in general; (b) To inspire respect for rough, honest,
bodily labour; (c) To develop independence and self-reliance;

(d) To train in habits of order, exactness, cleanliness and neatness;

(e)  To train the eye and the sense of form;   to give a general
dexterity of hand and to develop touch;   (/) To accustom to
attention—industry, perseverence and patience; (g) To promote
the development of the physical powers.   To these must be added
a material aim : (a) To give dexterity in the use of tools ; (b) To
execute exact work.   (6) With a view to securing the above results
—(a) The pupil must do the whole of the work himself, com-
mencing by cutting the wood from the log;   (b) The objects
must be such as are useful in the home of the pupils, and roust not
be merely ornamental—the work must not include fancy-work;
(c) The articles must include modelled objects, in the making of
which the pupil must be largely guided by the eye, and patterns
must not be used."*

The educational creed set forth in this statement may seem

* The Potdokgist, November, IQOZ, pp. 150, i$i»
oc